Online Secondary Research- US Female Filmmakers

As the whole report wouldn’t post successfully into this document, this is what I found out from The US Women’s Media Center Report (Women’s Media Center, 2014):

WOMEN’S MEDIA CENTER
The Status of Women in the U.S. Media 2014
womensmediacenter.com
27
In vaunted Sundance line-up, ‘… industry leaders … think male’
Based on responses from 34 filmmakers and film industry decision-makers at the 2013
Sundance Film Festival, University of Southern California researchers concluded that
32.1 percent of personal traits deemed as markers of a successful film director were
masculine and 19.3 percent were feminine, according to USC’s update of a 2012 report
on the prior decade’s female presence at Sundance. (The remaining, perceived traits of successful directors were gender-neutral.)
“When industry leaders think ‘director,’ they think ‘male,’” according to these researchers, encapsulating results from its Phase II update to Exploring the Barriers and Opportunities for Independent Women Filmmakers. Commissioned by the Sundance Institute and Women in Film Los Angeles Women Filmmakers Initiative and conducted by USC’s Annenberg School for Communication & Journalism Media, Diversity & Social Change Initiative, Phase II’s key findings—a
mix of positives and negatives—included these:
O For the first time at a U.S. competition for movies that were dramas, 50 percent of
narrative directors at Sundance in 2013 were women.
O In Sundance’s documentary division—run by a British-born black woman—42.2 percent of directors were female in 2013 and 49.2 percent of producers were female.
O Of the 1,163 content creators working behind the camera on 82 U.S. films at Sundance in 2013, 28.9 percent were women and 71.1 percent were men. Broken down by storytelling genre, 23.8 percent of content creators in narrative films and 40.4 percent in documentary films were women.
O Of the 432 fledgling filmmakers in a year-long Sundance Institute training and
mentoring fellowship between 2002 and 2013, 42.6 percent were female. Women
comprised 39.3 percent of the fellows in the Feature Film Program and 54.5 percent
of the fellows in the Documentary Film Program.
O Of 12 decision-makers in narrative film who were surveyed, 66.7 percent noted that
the pool of qualified female directors is smaller than that for qualified males; and
50 percent of them said jobs directing action, horror and other presumably male-
oriented films may not appeal to female directors.
“Conceiving of the directing role in masculine terms may limit the extent to which
different women are considered for the job,” these researchers wrote.
They continued: “Despite the gains made by female storytellers in 2013 and the
importance of lab support, these Findings reveal where problems still exist. Until cultural stereotypes and perceptions of the directing role grow more flexible, moving from independent film to commercial arenas will remain a difficult prospect for female filmmakers.” Phase I of Exploring the Barriers, summarily, found that, during the decade ending in 2012, women directors were more likely to oversee projects with a near equal balance of men and women in pivotal behind-the-scenes roles. Also, from 2002 through 2012, women directed 41.1 percent of documentary films competing for kudos at Sundance and 22.2 percent of narrative films in that competitive category, according to Phase I.
By comparison, 4.4 percent of the 100 films with the highest box of finance receipts were directed by women during the previously
studied decade.
WOMEN’S MEDIA CENTER
The Status of Women in the U.S. Media 2014
womensmediacenter.com
31
The Center for the Study of Women in Television & Film at San
Diego State
San Diego State University’s “Celluloid Ceiling” report found that the behind-the-
scenes female workforce lost ground from 2012 to 2013, the 16th year that SDSU’s
Center for the Study of Women in Television and Film has tracked such data.
The Center found that women accounted for 16 percent of all directors, executive producers, producers, writers, cinematographers and editors for the top 250 domestically
made films in 2013. That reflects a 2 percent drop since 2012 and a 1 percent decline
from the 1998 rate. Hovering at 25 percent, the count of women producers was unchanged, according to the study,
which, for the first time, also took a census of female composers, production designers, sound designers, special effects supervisors, supervising sound editors and visual effects supervisors.
In terms of behind-the-scenes absence in those categories, 99 percent of films had no female special effects supervisors; 97 percent of films had no female composers, sound designers or sound editors; and 91 per cent had no women as visual effects supervisors. (Women accounted for 23 percent of all production designers working on the top 250 films in 2013, a spike of 3 percent since 2008, when the center also collected data in that category.

Gender Inequality in Film (Zurco, 2013)

In light of the record-breaking opening of the female-led action film Hunger Games: Catching Fire this past weekend, the New York Film Academy decided to take a closer look at women in film and what, if any, advancements women are making. After reviewing the data, it is clear that Hollywood remains stuck in its gender bias. Of course, it’s not all disparaging news and there are a number of female filmmakers, characters, and emerging talent challenging the status quo. In addition, in the independent sphere, women made up roughly half of the directors at this year’s Sundance Film Festival, yet still struggle when it comes to films receiving a wide release. By shedding light on gender inequality in film, we hope to start a discussion about what can be done to increase women’s exposure and power in big-budget films.

New York Film Academy's Gender Inequality in Film Infographic

I could not separate the more relevant information here from the rest, although stats like “in 83 years only 7 women have won the best picture award”, “There were no female nominees for directing” (The Academy Awards in 2012) “in the top 250 films of 2012 9% of directors were female, 17% were executive producers, and 25% were producers” and “there is a 5:1 percent ratio of men working on films to women”.

Statistics (Silverstein, 2014)

Women and Hollywood By Melissa Silverstein | Women and HollywoodFebruary 23, 2014 at 9:21PM

Statistics on the State of Women and Hollywood
5


Statistics on the State of Women and Hollywood

FILM

Women directed 4.7% of studio films from 2009-2013
Women directed 10% of independent films from 2009-2013

2013

Women On Screen (top 100 grossing films)

  • Women represent a total of 30% of characters, 29% of speaking parts 15% of protagonists/leads.
  • Women are younger than men onscreen. The majority of women on screen are in their 20s and 30s, while men are in their 30s and 40s. Males over 40 make up 55% of all male characters, while females over 40 make up 30% of all characters.
  • 78% of male characters have definable occupations compared with 60% of female characters, and more men are seen in the workplace.
  • 73% of female characters are white. African-American characters make up 14%, Latinas 5%, Asian 3%; otherworldly 3%; and other 2%.
  • 17% of all characters are leaders, but of those characters 21% were men and 8% were women.

Center for the Study of Women in Television and Film

Women Behind the Scenes

  • “Women were 16% of the directors, executive producers, producers, writers, cinematographers, and editors working on the top 250 domestic grossing films.
  • Women directed 6% of the films.
  • Women wrote 10% of the movies
  • Women comprised 15% of all executive producers.
  • Women accounted for 25% of all producers.”
  • Women comprised 17% of all editors.
  • Women accounted for 3% of all cinematographers.
  • Women comprised 2% of all composers.
  • Women accounted for 23% of production designers.
  • Women comprised 4% of sound designers.
  • Women accounted for 9% of all supervising sound editors.
  • Women comprised 2% of all special effects supervisors.
  • Women accounted for 5% of all visual effects supervisors.

Center for the Study of Women in Television and Film

2012

Women Behind the Scenes

  • “Women were 18% of the directors, executive producers, producers, writers, cinematographers, and editors working on the top 250 domestic grossing films.
  • Women directed 9% of the films.”
  • Women wrote 15% of the movies.
  • Women comprised 17% of all executive producers.
  • Women accounted for 25% of all producers.
  • Women comprised 20% of all editors.
  • Women accounted for 2% of all cinematographers.

Center for the Study of Women in Television and Film

2011


Women Behind the Scenes

  • “Women directed 5% of the top grossing films.”
  • Women wrote 14% of the top grossing films.
  • “Women comprised 18% of all executive producers.”
  • “Women comprised 25% of all producers.”
  • 20% of all editors were women.
  • 4% of all cinematographers were women.

Stats from the Center for Study of Women in TV and Film

2010

Women Behind the Scenes


• “Women directed 7% of the top 250 grossing films.”
• Women wrote 10% of the top 250 grossing films of 2010
• “Women comprised 15% of all executive producers.”
• “Women comprised 24% of all producers.”
• 18% of all editors were women.
• 2% of all cinematographers were women.

Stats from the Center for Study of Women in TV and Film

2009

Women Behind the Scenes

  • “Women directed 7% of the top 250 grossing films.”
  • Women wrote 8% of the top 250 grossing films.
  • “Women made up 23% of all producers”
  • 18% of all editors were women
  • 2% of all cinematographers were women.

Center for the Study of Women in TV and Film, San Diego State U.
2008

Women Behind the Scenes

  • Only 6 of the top 50 grossing films (12 of the top 100 films) starred or were focused on women.
  • “Women comprised 9% of all directors.”
  • Women accounted for 12% of writers.
  • “Women comprised 16% of all executive producers.”
  • “Women accounted for 23% of all producers.”
  • Women accounted for 17% of all editors.
  • Women accounted for 25% of production managers.
  • Women comprised 44% of production supervisors.
  • Women accounted for 20% of all production designers.
  • Women comprised 5% of sound designers.
  • Women accounted for 5% of supervising sound editors.
  • Women comprised 1% of key grips.
  • Women accounted for 1% of gaffers.
  • Women comprise only 23% of film critics at daily newspapers.
  • Women comprised 22% of directors working on films appearing at the major film festivals compared to 9% on top grossing films.
  • Women accounted for 19% of writers working on films appearing at festivals but only 12% on top grossing films.
  • Women accounted for 33% of producers working on films appearing at festivals but only 20% of those working on top grossing films.
  • Women comprised 23% of editors working on festival films compared to 17% of those working on top grossing films.
  • Women comprised 9% of directors of photography working on festival films but only 4% of those working on top grossing films.
  • Overall, women comprised a larger percentage of behind-the-scenes workers on documentaries than narrative features.  Of all behind-the-scenes individuals working on documentaries, 29% were female and 71% were male.  Of all behind-the-scenes individuals working on narrative features, 18% were female and 78% were male.”

Center for Study of Women in TV and Film at San Diego State University
2007

Behind the Scenes

  • “In 2007, women only comprised 15% of all directors, executive producers, writers, cinematographers, and editors working on the top 250 grossing films.”
  • “In 2007, only 6% of the top 250 grossing films were directed by women.”
  • In 2007, only 5 of the top 50 films starred or were focused on women.

Center for Study of Women in TV and Film at San Diego State University
Sundance Research for Film Screened at the Festival From 2002-2012

  • “29.8% of filmmakers (directors, writers, producers, cinematographers and editors) were female.”
  • 23.9% of the films in this study were directed by women.
  • Films directed by women feature more women in all roles.  There is a 21% increase in women working on a narrative film when there is a female director and a 24% of women working on documentaries.
  • Females direct more documentaries than narrative films – 34.5% vs 16.9%.

TV

2013-2014 Season

Onscreen

  • Women made up 42% of the characters and speaking roles.
  • Female characters continue to be portrayed as younger than their male counterparts.
  • 74% of female characters were white, 14% were African-American, 5% were Latina, 6% were Asian, and 1% were of some other race or ethnicity.

Behind the Scenes

  • Women comprised 27% of all individuals working as creators, directors, writers, producers, executive producers, editors, and directors of photography.
  • Women created just 20% of all the shows.
  • Women account for 23% of all executive producers.
  • Women make up only 13% of directors, 17% of editors, and a paltry 2% of directors of photography.

Center for the Study of Women in Television and Film

Women directed 14% of episodes (DGA)

2012-13 Season

  • Women comprised 28% of all individuals working as creators, directors, writers, producers, executive producers, editors, and directors of photography.

— Center for the Study of Women in Television and Film

  • Women represent 14% of episodic TV directors –  2% minority women and 12% white women – DGA

2011-12  Season

  • 11% of caucasian women and only 4% of minority women directed scripted TV episodes. (DGA)
  • Women represent on 14% of TV director in the UK for the 2011-12 season – Directors UK
  • Women comprised 26% of all creators on broadcast programming.
  • Women made up 25% of executive producers.
  • Women accounted for 38% of producers.
  • Women comprise 30% of the writers.
  • Women made up 11% of directors.
  • Women accounted for 13% of the editors.
  • Women made up 4% of directors of photography.

Stats are from the Center for Study of Women in TV and Film at San Diego State University

Research from the Geena Davis Institute- Gender Bias Without Borders

International Study of Films Released Worldwide (G,PG, PG-13 films released 2010-2013)

  • There are 2.24 male characters for every female character.
  • Only 30.9% of the speaking characters are female.
  • Out of 1,452 filmmakers, 20.5% were women, but just 7% were directors. 19.5% of the writers were women, as were 22.7% of the producers.
  • Female characters are sexualized all across the globe
— USC Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism

The final part of the article is about television and so is not relevant. However, this article does show certain trends over the years and that women have not been in high quantities as directors or producers in US films.

A lot of the statistics that I have found also back up what the other sources were saying, and so I know that the statistics I put in my infographic should be factually correct.

Reference List:

Silverstein, M. (2014). Statistics. [online] Women and Hollywood. Available at: http://blogs.indiewire.com/womenandhollywood/statistics [Accessed 7 Dec. 2014].

Women’s Media Center, (2014). Women’s Media Center- The Status of Women in the US Media 2014. [online] Available at: http://wmc.3cdn.net/6dd3de8ca65852dbd4_fjm6yck9o.pdf [Accessed 7 Dec. 2014].

Zurco, N. (2013). Gender Inequality in Film – An Infographic. [online] New York Film Academy Blog. Available at: https://www.nyfa.edu/film-school-blog/gender-inequality-in-film/ [Accessed 7 Dec. 2014].

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