Online Secondary Research- Women Directors Examples

Ranked: The Best Women Film Directors (and Their Films) (Dietz, 2010)

Mind the gap

ImageMore than all right

Admittedly, we shouldn’t have to publish this article. But even in a year where a woman took home the Academy Award for best director (for the first time), female filmmakers still aren’t getting the same recognition or opportunities that male directors do.

When Kathryn Bigelow collected her Oscar trophy earlier this year, she did so as only the fourth woman ever nominated in the director category. But the Academy certainly isn’t the only organization to overlook female directors;

Bigelow is also the only female to win BAFTA and DGA awards as top director, and Barbra Streisand is the only female Golden Globe-winning director. The Cannes Film Festival also has a poor record in recognizing the achievements of women directors, and this year the festival came under fire when not a single one of the 18 films selected for the main competition were directed by women.

And this lack of recognition does not stem from a lack of quality films. While Christopher Nolan’s Inception 76 may be getting all the buzz,

two of this summer’s most acclaimed American films — with some of the best reviews for any film this year — were directed by women: Debra Granik’s Winter’s Bone 90 and Lisa Cholodenko’s The Kids Are All Right 86. (Only Toy Story 3 91 has a higher Metascore among this summer’s dramatic films.) As we shall see in a moment, these are far from the only critically acclaimed titles from women filmmakers.

Women directors, of course, aren’t limited to directing critically-acclaimed indie dramas — or even films geared toward female moviegoers. For decades, women have been directing in genres ranging from comedy (Martha Coolidge’s Real Genius, Penelope Spheeris’ Wayne’s World, Penny Marshall’s Big) and horror (Mary Lambert’s Pet Sematary) to animation (Vicky Jenson’s Shrek) and sports (Gurinder Chadha’s Bend It Like Beckham). Female directors have even made their mark in the “major box office flop” category (Elaine May’s Ishtar). However, not every genre has been open to directors of all genders; for example, few women other than Bigelow or Mimi Leder (Deep Impact) have ever had the opportunity to direct an action film.

And opportunities for women directors in any genre are still relatively rare. San Diego State University’s Center for the Study of Women in Television and Film routinely reports on trends in the industry, and their findings confirm a major disparity:

just 7% of last year’s 250 top-grossing films were directed by women. That percentage is actually a decline of two points compared to 2008, and the number has held steady within that 7% – 9% range for the past 25 years. The gender disparity extends, though not quite as severely, to all behind-the-camera crew positions and even to film critics.

We won’t be exploring the possible reasons why such a disparity exists here; instead, our focus is on the work turned out by these women directors over the past 30 years.

The directors

Which women directors have made the most of these limited opportunities? Below, we look at the average Metascores for the more prolific female filmmakers of the past three decades. We’re only covering dramatic films here, so noted documentarians like Ondi Timoner, Barbara Kopple, and Agnès Varda are not included. (Documentary films are actually the one genre where the number of female filmmakers is comparable to that of male directors.) Films released prior to 1980 are also excluded from the averages.

Metascore Averages for Women Directors (Min. 3 Scored Films in Database)
Director # of
scored films
Average Metascore Average
User Score
Average Box
Office Gross*
1 Lone Scherfig 3 77 8.6 $6.5m
The Danish director (who is part of the Dogme 95 movement founded by Lars von Trier) first attracted attention in the U.S. with her 2002 film Italian for Beginners 77, while her most recent film earned a nomination for Best Picture at this year’s Oscars.

Best film: An Education (2009) 85

Lucrecia Martel 3 77 8.0 $0.2m
Hailing from Argentina, Martel has helmed three critically-acclaimed films, including her 2001 debut La Ciénaga 75, named the best Latin American film of the past decade by a group of New York critics.

Best film: The Headless Woman (2009) 81

3 Sofia Coppola 3 77 6.3 $28.3m
Though her acting career quickly fizzled out, Coppola has been far more successful as a director, with three highly original and widely-praised releases to date. Her fourth feature, Somewhere, arrives in December.

Best film: Lost in Translation (2003) 89

4 Agnès Jaoui 3 76 7.3 $1.2m
Jaoui has directed three films, each with screenplays co-written by her husband, Jean-Pierre Bacri. An actress as well as a director, the native of France has appeared on screen in each of her own movies, including her latest comedy, Let It Rain 72, and the Oscar-nominated The Taste of Others 78.

Best film: Look at Me (2005) 79

5 Claire Denis 5 75 6.7 $0.1m
While the French director is responsible for some of the most critically-acclaimed films of the past decade, reviewers aren’t always fond of her work. Exhibit 1: her 2001 existentialist horror film Trouble Every Day 36.

Best film: 35 Shots of Rum (2009) 92

6 Susanne Bier 4 74 8.3 $1.6m
Another top Danish director, Bier received an Oscar nomination for best foreign-language film for After the Wedding. Her 2005 film Brothers was recently remade as a Tobey Maguire film, and in 2007 she directed her first English-language film, the Halle Berry-starring Things We Lost in the Fire 63.

Best film: After the Wedding (2007) 78

7 Lisa Cholodenko 3 73 8.3 $2.9m **
Before this year’s critical hit The Kids Are All Right, the Los Angeles native directed the indie dramas Laurel Canyon 61 and High Art 73 as well as episodes of Six Feet Under and Homicide: Life on the Street.

Best film: The Kids Are All Right (2010) 86

8 Nicole Holofcener 3 72 7.2 $7.0m **
Holofcener’s films might be formulaic, but it’s not your usual formula. Instead, starting with 1996’s Walking and Talking 67, each of the writer-director’s four releases to date has been an acclaimed, intelligent drama (with elements of comedy) starring Catherine Keener.

Best film: Please Give (2010) 78

9 Mary Harron 3 68 8.1 $9.1m
In addition to her biopic about Andy Warhol’s would-be assassin Valerie Solanas, the Candian filmmaker also adapted Bret Easton Ellis’ American Psycho 64 and, more recently, directed The Notorious Bettie Page 64.

Best film: I Shot Andy Warhol (1996) 75

10 Jane Campion 5 67 7.0 $14.3m
The New Zealand native is one of only four women ever nominated for the director Oscar. A director now for over 25 years, Campion’s most recent effort was 2009’s Bright Star 81, about poet John Keats.

Best film: The Piano (1993) 89

11 Anne Fontaine 4 66 7.7 $1.8m
12 Kathryn Bigelow 3 66 6.5 $26.3m
13 Kasi Lemmons 3 64 8.5 $10.6m
14 Agnieszka Holland 3 63 7.6 $14.5m
The Europa Europa director has also worked in American television, directing episodes of Treme and The Wire
15 Gillian Armstrong 4 62 8.3 $18.0m
Mira Nair 4 62 7.2 $12.6m
17 Deepa Mehta 4 62 8.7 $3.2m
18 Catherine Breillat 7 61 6.3 $0.6m
19 Gurinder Chadha 3 59 7.7 $13.5m
Rebecca Miller 3 59 6.8 $0.8m
21 Catherine Hardwicke 4 59 7.4 $69.7m
22 Julie Taymor 3 58 7.6 $22.1m
Katherine Dieckmann 3 58 7.6 $0.1m
24 Penny Marshall 4 58 8.0 $109.1m
25 Nancy Meyers 5 57 6.8 $145.4m
26 Vicky Jenson 3 56 7.3 $196.2m
27 Karyn Kusama 3 51 7.0 $17.2m
28 Amy Heckerling 5 50 7.2 $96.0m
29 Anne Fletcher 3 48 6.9 $113.0m
30 Betty Thomas 6 46 6.7 $110.9m
One of Hollywood’s most commercially successful women directors, Thomas first gained fame as an Emmy-winning actor on the acclaimed 1980s cop series Hill Street Blues
31 Nora Ephron 7 44 6.3 $101.3m
32 Penelope Spheeris 3 42 7.9 $99.4m
Not included in her score average are a trio of documentaries about the Los Angeles music scene, The Decline of Western Civilization
33 Clare Kilner 3 42 6.2 $19.4m
34 Mimi Leder 3 41 6.4 $119.7m
35 Julie Davis 3 37 7.7 $0.4m
36 Tamra Davis 3 20 7.3 $40.4m
Among the director’s critic-unfriendly films are the 1998 drug comedy Half Baked 16

Excludes documentary films. Directors are ranked by average Metascore prior to rounding.
* Adjusted for inflation; U.S. grosses only. Source for box office data: Box Office Mojo.
** One of the director’s films is still playing in theaters. Box office data accurate as of July 15, 2010.

Other prominent women directors of the past 30 years not listed above (because many or all of their movies do not have Metascores) include Allison Anders (Gas, Food, Lodging), Antonia Bird (Priest), Martha Coolidge (Valley Girl), Marleen Gorris (Antonia’s Line), Randa Haines (Children of a Lesser God), Beeban Kidron (To Wong Foo Thanks for Everything, Julie Newmar), Mary Lambert (Pet Sematary), Sally Potter (Orlando), Susan Seidelman (Desperately Seeking Susan), and Barbra Streisand (Prince of Tides).

Also note that Kathryn Bigelow, Amy Heckerling. Agnieszka Holland, Penny Marshall, Mira Nair, and Penelope Spheeris have many older films without Metascores; thus, their score averages indicated above paint an incomplete picture of the quality of their films.

Here are the top women directors from a commercial standpoint:

Highest Lifetime Cumulative Box Office Grosses for Women Directors
Director Lifetime Domestic Gross * Average Gross Per Film *
1 Nora Ephron $810,462,500 $101.3m
2 Betty Thomas $776,402,800 $110.9m
3 Amy Heckerling $767,737,300 $96.0m
4 Penny Marshall $764,042,300 $109.1m
5 Nancy Meyers $726,866,100 $145.4m

* Adjusted for inflation; U.S. grosses only. Source for box office data: Box Office Mojo.

Films directed by women

First, let’s see how films from women directors have performed at the box office. According to a recent report by INDIEwire, only seven of the 241 films with domestic grosses of $100m or more over the past decade were directed or co-directed by women.

Why are so few women directors represented on the box office leaderboard? According to another study from San Diego State University, the reason is that women rarely get the chance to direct big budget films: “When women and men filmmakers have similar budgets for their films, the resulting box office grosses are also similar.”

Here are the best-performing films directed by women over the past 30 years. Note that all box office figures are adjusted for inflation to make comparing films released across different years a bit easier.

Highest-Grossing* Movies Directed by Women (Since 1980)
Title Director Year Metascore Users U.S. Gross*
1 Shrek Vicky Jenson 2001 84 8.6 $376.0m
2 Look Who’s Talking Amy Heckerling 1989 51 n/a $277.0m
3 What Women Want Nancy Meyers 2000 47 6.3 $263.1m
4 Dr. Dolittle Betty Thomas 1998 46 5.6 $244.4m
5 Sleepless in Seattle Nora Ephron 1993 71 9.6 $243.3m
6 Deep Impact Mimi Leder 1998 40 3.6 $238.1m
7 Wayne’s World Penelope Spheeris 1992 53 9.8 $233.1m
8 Alvin & the Chipmunks: The Squeakquel Betty Thomas 2009 41 5.3 $225.0m
9 Big Penny Marshall 1988 70 7.4 $222.4m
10 Twilight Catherine Hardwicke 2008 56 5.6 $213.4m

* Adjusted for inflation; U.S. grosses only. Source for box office data: Box Office Mojo.
Film was co-directed with a male director.

Finally, let’s look at the best and worst films directed by women (at least out of those in Metacritic’s database; some films from the 1990s may not be available, and few if any films from the 1980s or earlier have Metascores).

Best-Reviewed Movies Directed by Women
Title Director Year Metascore Users
1 The Hurt Locker Kathryn Bigelow 2009 94 6.9
Sita Sings the Blues Nina Paley 2010 94 7.3
3 35 Shots of Rum Claire Denis 2009 92 5.5
4 Beau Travail Claire Denis 2000 91 7.6
5 American Splendor Shari Springer Berman 2003 90 8.0
Persepolis Marjane Satrapi 2007 90 8.1
Winter’s Bone Debra Granik 2010 90 7.6
8 Lost in Translation Sofia Coppola 2003 89 6.3
The Piano Jane Campion 1993 89 7.1
10 Away from Her Sarah Polley 2007 88 8.0
11 Little Women [1994] Gillian Armstrong 1994 87 9.2
12 Boys Don’t Cry Kimberly Peirce 1999 86 8.6
The Kids Are All Right Lisa Cholodenko 2010 86 8.0
14 An Education Lone Scherfig 2009 85 8.1
The Intruder Claire Denis 2005 85 5.0
The Savages Tamara Jenkins 2007 85 7.4
17 Old Joy Kelly Reichardt 2006 84 5.5
Shrek Vicky Jenson 2001 84 8.6
19 Frozen River Courtney Hunt 2008 82 8.4
The Namesake Mira Nair 2007 82 8.0
21 Bright Star Jane Campion 2009 81 6.9
Chaos Coline Serreau 2003 81 8.3
Fish Tank Andrea Arnold 2010 81 8.2
The Headless Woman Lucrecia Martel 2009 81 6.6
The Secret of Kells Nora Twomey 2010 81 7.7
26 Little Miss Sunshine Valerie Faris 2006 80 7.4
Set Me Free Léa Pool 2000 80 9.2
Wendy and Lucy Kelly Reichardt 2008 80 6.2
29 City of God Kátia Lund 2003 79 8.7
Look at Me Agnes Jaoui 2005 79 7.7
Whale Rider Niki Caro 2003 79 6.3
32 After the Wedding Susanne Bier 2007 78 8.5
Eve’s Bayou Kasi Lemmons 1997 78 10.0
How I Killed My Father Anne Fontaine 2002 78 7.5
Innocence Lucile Hadzihalilovic 2005 78 7.3
The Last Mistress Catherine Breillat 2008 78 7.6
Morvern Callar Lynne Ramsay 2002 78 5.7
Please Give Nicole Holofcener 2010 78 7.5
The Taste of Others Agnes Jaoui 2001 78 6.8
40 Fat Girl Catherine Breillat 2001 77 6.7
Italian for Beginners Lone Scherfig 2002 77 9.8
Monsoon Wedding Mira Nair 2002 77 7.9
Open Hearts Susanne Bier 2003 77 8.8
Stephanie Daley Hilary Brougher 2007 77 6.8
Water Deepa Mehta 2006 77 6.7

Excludes documentary films.
Film was co-directed with a male director.

Worst-Reviewed Movies Directed by Women (Since 1980)
Title Director Year Metascore Users
1 The In Crowd Mary Lambert 2000 14 2.5
Mixed Nuts Nora Ephron 1994 14 6.4
3 Billy Madison Tamra Davis 1995 16 8.7
Half Baked Tamra Davis 1998 16 8.7
5 I Hate Valentine’s Day Nia Vardalos 2009 17 4.9
Material Girls Martha Coolidge 2006 17 4.0
7 Beautiful Sally Field 2000 23 5.2
8 Boxing Helena Jennifer Lynch 1993 26 6.6
Filth and Wisdom Madonna 2008 26 5.8
A Night at the Roxbury Amy Heckerling 1998 26 8.9

Film was co-directed with a male director.

Heroines of Cinema: The 10 Most Exciting Young Female Directors in the World Today (Knott, 2013)

By Matthew Hammett Knott | IndiewireJuly 25, 2013 at 10:37AM

This week, the British Film Institute released statistics revealing that a mere 14 feature films were directed by women in the UK last year, compared to 164 by men. Meanwhile, of the 16 gala premieres just announced by this year’s Toronto film festival, none have female directors.The prejudices faced by women filmmakers – half of all film school graduates but only 5% of working Hollywood directors – have been well-documented.
Those who do make it talk often of the depressing struggle they faced to get there, far longer on average than their male counterparts. It is equally common to hear of a female director whose difficulties in getting financed or produced stemmed from the personal subject matter of their work.
Sarah Polley on the set of "Stories We Tell"
Sarah Polley on the set of “Stories We Tell”

This week, the British Film Institute released statistics revealing that a mere 14 feature films were directed by women in the UK last year, compared to 164 by men. Meanwhile, of the 16 gala premieres just announced by this year’s Toronto film festival, none have female directors.

The prejudices faced by women filmmakers – half of all film school graduates but only 5% of working Hollywood directors – have been well-documented. Those who do make it talk often of the depressing struggle they faced to get there, far longer on average than their male counterparts. It is equally common to hear of a female director whose difficulties in getting financed or produced stemmed from the personal subject matter of their work.

READ MORE: From Emma Thompson and Tilda Swinton to Ava DuVernay and Sally Potter: All Our Heroines of Cinema

It would seem that both of these realities are informed by the depressing strain of misogyny which judges the perspective of a young woman to be somehow lesser. Greta Gerwig showed awareness of this when she said “| think that people get really angry when it’s women doing it, to be totally honest. There’s something that feels threatening about it and they have to be doing something other than being thoughtful. It has to be somehow an exercise in narcissism, because why else would you make anything about women?”.

Yet plenty of young female voices have succeeded in breaking through these absurd walls of prejudice, and not with any hint of compromise. Here is a list of ten female directors aged 40 or younger, whose achievements make for refreshing reading, both for content of their work and the way they have established their careers. It is a subjective list, and no disservice to any of the women not included, especially those who simply happen to exceed my arbitrary age limit. My focus on youth need signify no more than an inspiring look to the future, and the many decades of filmmaking we can expect from each of the following.

Sally El-Hosaini
Age: 37-38
Nationality: British
Claim to fame: Turning the urban crime genre on its head
Her story: The British tradition of “gritty realism” may have hit highs through the work of fellow British women Lynn Ramsay, Clio Barnard and Andrea Arnold, but in lesser hands it has also been done to death. Last year, Welsh-Egyptian director El-Hosaini burst onto the scene with “My Brother the Devil”, a film that at first appears to be a fairly conventional, if well-constructed, urban drama about two brothers drawn towards a life of crime. But then the plot veers into totally unexpected territory, transforming the narrative into a bold and vital deconstruction of contemporary masculinity. This makes sense of – and more than justifies – the long struggle El-Hosaini faced to get the film made.

Roadside Has Miranda July's "The Future"
Roadside Attractions Miranda July in “The Future”

Miranda July
Age: 39
Nationality: American
Claim to fame: giving the indie wunderkind a female face
Her story: The strand of independent cinema forever doomed to be described as “quirky” and “eccentric” has a chequered history, with directors such as Charlie Kaufman and Michel Gondry representing its zenith, but many below them giving it a bad name. Either way, it has tended to be men who are permitted to express their quirks on film – until the arrival of Miranda July with her 2004 film “Me and You and Everyone we Know”. July has had her fair share of critics – I myself came down hard on her 2011 release “The Future” – but her idiosyncratic filmmaking voice is uniquely hers, and against a landscape of male-constructed manic pixie dream girls, uniquely refreshing.

Celine Sciamma
Age: 32
Nationality: French
Claim to fame: subverting gender expectations
Her story: The press treatment of Angelina Jolie’s daughter Shiloh makes clear that media coverage of childhood gender nonconformity is not exactly enlightened. And whilst we can only dream of Celine Sciamma’s “Tomboy” reaching the kind of audience exposed to that level of tabloid dross, it remains a startling film about a ten year old girl who moves to a new town and announces to her new friends that she is a boy. Before this, Sciamma’s debut “Water Lilies” screened at Cannes at the age of 25. With a striking minimalist style both indebted to French tradition and uniquely hers, Sciamma has won over the critical fraternity without compromising her focus on young female sexuality.

Lucia Puenzo
Age: 39
Nationality: Argentinian
Claim to fame: narrating the intersex experience
Her story: Not dissimilarly to Sciamma, Lucia Puenzo announced her arrival with 2007’s XXY, a film about an intersex teen facing adolescent struggles both familiar and unique. The film scooped the Critics Week Grand Prix at Cannes, and Puenzo was back on the Croisette this year, with her third feature “Wakolda” screening as part of Un Certain Regard. A well-received drama about a Nazi physician who develops an unhealthy obsession with an aryan Argentinian family, it is evidence that Puenzo’s storytelling scope remains as wide as ever.
Dee Rees at the Gotham Awards.

Dee Rees
Age: 35-36
Nationality: American
Claim to fame: breaking ground for lesbian cinema
Her story: When “Blue is the Warmest Colour” won the Palme d’or earlier this summer, there were voices that wondered whether Cannes would have been so quick to embrace a teenage lesbian drama had it not had a middle aged straight male director at its helm. Yet two years earlier, Dee Rees proved that such narratives do not need the hand of patriarchal guidance in order to break through. Her semi-autobiographical film “Pariah” scored a 95% approval rating on Rotten Tomatoes and awards from all quarters including the Indie Spirits, the National Board of Review and Sundance. An unprecedented level of industry endorsement for a black lesbian narrative from a black lesbian director, Rees’ cinematic voice is compelling on its own terms and essential in the context of the heterocentric, white male-dominated landscape it inhabits.

Mia Hansen-Love
Age: 32
Nationality: French
Claim to fame: Conquering Cannes in her twenties
Her story: It is rare enough for female directors to win acclaim at notoriously male-dominated Cannes. It is even rarer to do it young. Mia Hansen-Love was 23 when she made her feature debut, and 28 when her third feature – 2009’s “The Father of my Children” – won the Special Jury Prize from Cannes’ Un Certain Regard line up. Recently listed among the Top 20 directors in the world today by The Guardian, it seems that her already prolific career is only on its opening chapter.
SXSW Keynote speaker Lena Dunham
SXSW Keynote speaker Lena Dunham

Lena Dunham

Age: 27
Nationality: American
Claim to fame: showing Hollywood that girls can do the “boy genius” thing
Her story: Soderbergh won the Palme d’or at 26. Spielberg directed Jaws aged 27. For her part, Lena Dunham has written and directed a feature film and two television series, and won a DGA award for her direction of the latter. Dunham has refused to apologise for maintaining her dramatic focus on her own privileged young white female worldview. And though it has meant facing ten times the criticism of say, Wes Anderson or Noah Baumbach, she has succeeded in proving herself, creatively speaking, as their equal.

Haifaa Al-Mansour
Age: 38
Nationality: Saudi Arabian
Her claim to fame: re-writing cinema history
Her story: Al-Mansour’s narrative is no less remarkable for having been oft-repeated. “Wadjda” is both the first ever feature film directed by a Saudi woman, and the first ever feature film shot entirely within Saudi Arabia. Al-Mansour had to direct some scenes hidden inside a van, so as not to be witnessed directing male crew members. It is a story so remarkable that it risks overshadowing the film itself, but the enthusiastic worldwide distribution the film has received – opening in the UK last week – is proof that its on-screen narrative is equally compelling. In a country where cinema has been effectively banned for decades, and where women’s rights are some of the most oppressive in the world, Al-Mansour’s is now a hugely vital voice, on screen and off.

Sarah Polley
Age: 34
Nationality: Canadian
Claim to fame: telling stories on her own terms
Her story: Polley is not the first director to straddle documentary and fiction genres, but the variety of her career output so far is pleasing evidence of a creative sensibility in full flight. Aged 27, her directorial debut “Away from Her” was a huge success, twice Oscar-nominated and widely embraced by her peers. Both of her films since then have been refreshingly idiosyncratic – 2012’s “Take this Waltz” polarised reviewers but drew raves from many for its dry emotional honesty. This year, it is hybrid documentary “Stories we Tell”, an unclassifiable exploration of Polley’s own family history, which has been garnering acclaim worldwide. Up next is an adaptation of Margaret Atwood’s “Alias Grace”.
Ava DuVernay
Daniel Bergeron Ava DuVernay

Ava DuVernay

Age: 40
Nationality: American
Claim to fame: being a game changer
Her story: Ava DuVernay is a revitalising voice on the indie film circuit. After becoming the first black woman to win the Best Director award at Sundance for her second feature “Middle of Nowhere”, she has shown herself to be a passionate advocate for disrupting traditional forms of filmmaking and distribution. A constant champion of her fellow directors, she is always happy to acknowledge her status as a black female director, if only because she appears to see it as both a necessary conversation and a cause for celebration. Earlier this month, it was announced that she would direct the Martin Luther King biopic “Selma” following Lee Daniels’ departure from the project. An appointment like this is highly significant – as Women and Hollywood’s Melissa Silverstein pointed out, “movies about epic male historical figures are usually reserved for [male directors]”. But DuVernay has already proven herself as no prisoner to establishment convention.

The information that I have found here is that it is rare for women to get to be directors, but the ones that do make it as directors have been extremely successful in their films, and although they may not be widely recognised there is an audience out there that does appreciate their work. I also learned that big well-known films such as Shrek and Look Who’s Talking were directed by women, which is something that I doubt many people would be aware of.

Reference List:

Dietz, J. (2010). Best Women Film Directors and Movies Directed by Women – Metacritic. [online] Available at: [Accessed 7 Dec. 2014].

Knott, M. (2013). Heroines of Cinema: The 10 Most Exciting Young Female Directors in the World Today. [online] Indiewire. Available at: [Accessed 7 Dec. 2014].

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